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Prostate Cancer (PCa) was first diagnosed in 1853 as cirrhosis of the prostate gland. Silently asymptomatic, PCa is usually diagnosed with Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels. Since the first treatment of an advanced prostatic malignancy with X-rays by Imbert and Imbert in 1904, External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is now a curative option for localised and locally advanced disease and a palliative option for the metastatic low-volume disease. With the introduction of computers in EBRT and better imaging techniques, volume delineation is still a very time-consuming task. While Deep Learning methods are urged, EBRT systems still rely on manual or semi-automatic segmentation techniques. The U-Net architecture was specially designed for medical image segmentation presenting promising results. This literature review gathers work using U-Net architectures, outlining methods, techniques and obtained outcomes as a potential foundation for an automated segmentation framework for PCa.
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