Socio-Environmental Sustainability of Traditional Courtyard Houses of Lucknow and Varanasi

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Lalit Akash Verma
Farheen Bano


The courtyard houses have an important place in the history of architecture. They play a vital role in the social and environmental sustainability of that place. This paper aims to identify the significance of courtyards in composite climate by analyzing the associated space, function, courtyard configuration, and socio-cultural connections. Accordingly, eight courtyard houses of Lucknow and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, India) were selected for analysis based on their heritage value (in terms of age) and placement in the courtyard. Drawings of these houses were prepared through a site survey. Illumination data in the courtyard and adjacent spaces was measured through a lux meter. Various parameters of the courtyard, such as placement, size (length, breadth, and height), and connection to adjacent spaces, were analyzed through the above-collected data. The analysis concluded that the courtyard houses with NS orientation with significant height have good thermal comfort and daylight in the adjacent spaces.


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